The pulmonary artery flotation catheter of Drs. Swan and Ganz is used primarily for monitoring hemodynamic parameters but also permits sampling of blood from the pulmonary circulation (Fig 1). With the exception of determinations of mixed venous oxygenation, little advantage has been taken of this unique access to blood from the pulmonary artery microcirculation.
Medical Approach for Premature Ejaculation Treatment
Often, premature ejaculation after some time is resolved by itself and does not require medical treatment. In some cases, cessation or restriction of alcohol consumption, tobacco addiction, illicit drugs abuse may improve man’s ability to control ejaculation.
Other options include:
- use of condom to reduce penile sensations;
- use of another position (for example, lying on back) during sexual intercourse.
In premature ejaculation treatment, psychotherapy is also used – it can reduce anxiety related to premature ejaculation (PE).
Female Frigidity from Analytical Psychologist View Point
This article of Canadian Health&Care Mall: will tell you about female frigidity in terms of psychology and sexology. What kind of frigidity classification is acceptable among these professionals? How can they help you or your girlfriend in case of problems with sexuality? When faced with a similar phenomenon is very important to understand what is reason for its occurrence.
Concept of female frigidity should not be treated lightly, since frigidity seriously affects female psychological state. Contemporary problem is that similar frigidity today is exposed to almost half of the fair sex. Each case of frigidity in women is different from the others. There are no similar situations. Frigidity appears due to a combination of several disorders.
In addition, each woman has a complex of sensations. Strictly speaking, not every case of women’s sexuality violation can be called frigidity. If you really frigid, you basically do not care about men. You do not want sexual relations with neither of them. This is the first stage of female frigidity. When representatives of the stronger sex are not able to make you feel sexually desired. You may feel sexually desired by means of medications sold by Canadian Pharmacy Mall.
Different abnormalities that prevent achieving or maintaining penis erection sufficient for full sexual intercourse are called erectile dysfunction. This disorder is one of the most common forms of sexual disorders at men.
Almost every man once in his life has suffered from inability to achieve erection. This temporary phenomenon could be caused by excessive alcohol consumption or fear.
What is erectile dysfunction? Broadly defined – it is a chronic condition of male body, manifesting not only in inability to keep penis in erected state, but also in decrease in sexual desire – libido. This disease can be caused by inconfidence, stress and fear or self-dissatisfaction.
More than 10% of men complain on this disorder over the age of 21, and in the age group from 40 to 70 this disease affects more than 50%. Quite often, causes are problems or fatigue at work, a variety of psychological problems or physical illness.
There are primary (congenital) and secondary degree of erectile dysfunction. The first type is characterized by the fact that a man has never, throughout his life, been able to perform a full sexual intercourse. This disease form is very rare. The most common form is the second type, at which a man had everything fine, but then, for some reason, problems or weak erection began to appear.
To a large extent erectile dysfunction worsens quality of life. It can manifest in sexual dissatisfaction, constant psychic tension, stress and low self-esteem.
How does Erection Appear?
Different mechanisms are responsible in human body for erection appearance. Male penis consists of two different cavernous bodies and one spongy body. Each of them individually has circulatory system, unrelated to each other. They are supplied with blood through their arteries, and then it outflows through individual veins. In case of sexual excitement the arteries, that bring blood, greatly expand, and veins are sharply narrowed. Consequently, penis lacunas accumulate a large amount of blood, there is tension and erection appears. This blood vessels condition is preserved during the whole excitation period. During all this time penile tissues (excluding skin) do not receive new blood, in this case – they are in specific ischemia state.
As a consequence, very long-lasting sex can also lead to a certain kind of male health problems and serve as the cause for one of erectile dysfunction types.
Consequence of multifactor impact is erectile dysfunction etiology and pathogenesis itself. Any reasons for blood flow to cavernous bodies reduction, or to increase in its outflow may become erectile disorders factors.
Disease Causes Classification
Erectile dysfunction according to its causes may have psychogenic origin, as well as physical factors of organic nature. In overwhelming number of cases, this disease has a mixed nature.
Among organic factors causing male erectile dysfunction, Canadian Health&Care Mall distinguishes:
- chronic prostatitis;
- drug therapy side effect;
- endocrine disorders (pituitary tumor, hypogonadism, etc.);
- spinal cord or pelvic organs injury or surgery;
- perineal organs dysfunction or disease;
- neurological disorders (epilepsy, multiple sclerosis or Parkinson’s disease, etc.);
- cardiovascular system diseases.
Erectile dysfunction physical causes include obesity, atherosclerosis, hypertension, Peyronie’s disease (scar tissues in penis). Erectile dysfunction at diabetes is a relatively frequent consequence for this type of disorders.
Smoking, drinking alcohol or taking narcotic drugs also contribute to such disease as erectile dysfunction development. In the same time, some medication drugs – antispasmodics, antidepressants or substances that reduce blood pressure – can cause this disorders.
Psychogenic factors that cause this disorder include:
- general poor health condition;
- conflict situations;
- dissatisfaction with oneself or partner.
Psychogenic erectile dysfunction at men can be caused by various psychological and other reasons. Very often, erection does not occur because of insufficiently favorable for sexual intercourse external environment: unlocked doors, presence of strangers in the house, necessity to keep quiet not to wake sleeping children and so on. Such psychogenic disease form may be also selective, when a man at constant success with one partner, can’t perform full sexual intercourse with another. Young people may have problems with sexual intercourse on first acquaintance. The degree of excitation during first intimacy is so great that before intercourse begins the body is already very tired of this overload. Because of this – erection disappears. In future, everything may come back to normal.
Psychogenic erectile dysfunction can also occur due to condoms use. In some cases, because of them normal erection doesn’t appear. Other contraceptive methods help to remove this psychological moment and build up relationships.
Psychological constitution of some men can be built in such a way that even random failures can cause severe anxiety and lead to negative perception of sexual relations in future. Most negative impact is exposed by thoughts of own worthlessness. In such cases it is better to forget about the problem and switch off from it. It is necessary to only remove excitement factor, and the next time everything will be fine.
Typical signs and symptoms, that psychological reasons affect this function, is erection appearance during sleep, in the morning or during masturbation, and at other times achieving this condition causes problems. Only complete absence of erection can indicate serious violations and organic causes of erectile dysfunction.
Prenatal alcohol syndrome at children is considered congenital physical and psychological abnormalities in child’s development, which is caused by alcohol consumption by a woman during pregnancy and even before conception.
Adverse effect, which causes this syndrome development, is explained by toxins and alcohol decomposition products influence on the fetus. This is possible because of alcohol easy permeability through placenta, which affects liver, zinc, amino acids and other substances transportation, RNA synthesis.
For the first time prenatal alcohol syndrome was described by P. Lemoine, who examined children born to mothers-alcoholics. He described and classified the most often occurring disorders associated with the disease. His work was continued by K. L. Jones, who in 1973 described abnormalities, characteristic for children born to mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy. The scientists combined results and gave this disorder a name – prenatal alcohol syndrome (PAS), after which representatives of different professions in medicine and related sciences began to study the disease.
When research was conducted in CIS countries, it was found that many women are unaware of dangers that alcohol brings and that’s why some did not exclude it not only during planning period, but even during pregnancy. Besides, there is a mistaken opinion on benefits of small amounts of red wine during carrying a child. Also opinion security beer consumption is wrong, in fact it can cause embryo irreparable harm or even kill it.
Such situation, according to Canadian Health&Care Mall experts, requires active participation of doctors, observing pregnancy, who should tell expectant mothers about what irreparable harm they can cause to their future babies, if they don’t get rid of bad habits.
Physical Abnormalities at PAS
As already mentioned, alcohol can easily penetrate through placental barrier. Then it begins to accumulate in fetal tissues, as organs responsible for toxins neutralization, are still weekly functioning.
Accumulating, this toxin leads to development of not one but several abnormalities both internal and external.
The first PAS characteristic feature is the so-called disembryogenesis stigmas, will be detected at the first examination by pediatrician. Such children may have severe physical defects: «cleft lip» and «cleft palate» or small deviations, such as small skull, small weight and height, broad nasal bridge, unusual shape of ears, short palpebral fissures, flattened groove between thin upper lip and nose. All face structural features are for life, so it is easy to recognize a person suffering from PAS at any age.
Some of these abnormalities could be taken as cosmetic defect, but as a rule, they are not the only ones. Such infants should be sent immediately to thorough examination, as often they have brain and heart abnormalities, visual and hearing impairments. Sometimes these diseases require urgent surgical intervention.
Mental Abnormalities at PAS
Nervous tissue is most sensitive to ethanol, so almost naturally under alcohol influence the brain is damaged. At birth, it is impossible to determine intelligence level, and therefore the problem will be manifesting gradually. In infancy, a baby may retard in psychomotor and speech development, such child is difficult to acquire basic skills. With age situation will become clearer, poor attention, memory, imagination – all these are PAS symptoms.
Children with prenatal alcohol syndrome behavior does not meet generally accepted standards, they differ with unpredictability, have difficulties in communicating with peers and adults, it is often difficult for them to assess consequences of their actions.
As a result of these deviations, a child is not good at school, acquiring profession. In future, there may be serious problems with creating family and bringing up their own children.
Among other things, it is proved that a person, suffering from PAS, is more exposed to alcohol impact and even one-time drinking can lead to irresistible craving for alcohol.
It is natural for every man to yearn for better and stronger erection in order to last longer in the bed. Nonetheless, erection is very complex procedure and also depends on several of factors.
Is It Possible To Strengthen The Penis?
There are certainly some ways by which you will be able to strengthen your penis. Two main factors affecting your hardness are:
- Mental state
- Physical state
Here is some erection tips by which you will be able to make your erection last for a longer period of time.
Give Up Smoking
Smoking is responsible for hardening the arteries of the penis. As a result there blood flow to the penis is reduced. Experts have said that smoking effects:
- Blood vessels
- Sexual organs
Erection has a lot to do with a healthy heart and blood vessels. It has been stated that smokers are more likely to get erectile dysfunction than non-smokers.
Limit the Consumption of Alcohol
The fun that you have intoxicating yourself comes with a certain cost. Heavy to moderate drinking has been the cause of erectile dysfunction. It is much more difficult to get an erection when you are drunk compared to the times when you are sober. When you have alcohol for a long period of time, it is likely to damage your kidney and nerves which, in turn, might affect your healthy sexual life.
Bid Goodbye to Stress
It important for you to understand that brain and not penis, is the most important organ of the body. There are several people out there who fail get a hard erection because they are either too nervous or too anxious during the sexual activity, even when they are perfectly healthy. Stress causes a rise in the cortisol level which causes a drop in the sex drive. Thus, you need to remove all stress that is controlling your life. Here are certain things that you need to follow for harder erection:
- Reduce the intake of caffeinated drinks
- Avoid working extra times
- Maintain a balance in your life
Canadian Health Care Mall states that an intense workout will help the mind and body to work properly. Make sure that you exercise on a regular basis. Exercise improves the flow of blood in the body which helps in getting an erection. Kegel’s exercises are done for strengthening the muscles around the pelvic region of your body. This will help you to gain a control over bladder and enhance your sex life.
Maintain a Healthy Diet
Eating proper food is quite essential for having a healthy sexual life and is also one important erection tips. You need to have a diet that is filled with vegetables and fruits which are rich in antioxidants. This increases the blood flow to the penis and thus, improves the quality of your erection. Food items that is bad for the heart is also bad for erection because it effects the circulation of blood.
Indulge in Foreplay
According to Canadian Health Care Mall you should not just be obsessed about the penetration; you need to indulge in foreplay too for a healthy sexual life. If you concentrate and race towards ejaculation then you are missing out on a lot of penis strengthening time. Take time out for other activities to strengthen your erection.
The reasons which can cause impotence emergence can be divided into several types – endocrine, medicamentous, local, and also neurologic and vascular. It should be noted that everything listed belongs only to an organic form of impotence, that is if erection violation is caused by any changes or violations in human body. But if to consider statistics of this disease, then it is possible to see that erection violation much more often happens is caused by psychological factors.
In this case normally psychoneurological features prevent to carry out sexual intercourse only. Besides, in absolute majority of cases the psychological component joins the organic reasons of impotence development and here practically there is always such situation that after elimination of the prime cause of an illness he comes out on top, continuing to exert negative impact on sexual life.
Generalizing told, it is possible to claim that most often impotence “eats” features of mentality of the patient, despite a huge number of the diseases and states causing violation of erectile function. Having added here the fact that any cause of erectile function infringement of an organic origin surely is followed by a psychological component, it is possible to claim safely that the psychological aspect comes out on top here. If you come across with erectile dysfunction of any origin you are welcome on Canadian Health Care Mall to order remedies necessary for treatment. It is possible to save money while making orders of drugs via our online service.
The range of the psychological reasons which can cause erection violations in the man is exclusively wide. The erection can be absent, to quickly vanish or be low-quality if the man is in depression or prolonged stress. Also violations can be caused by fatigue, the general feeling sick if the man is dissatisfied with himself or the partner, the conflicts with the partner, discrepancy of the sexual habits and requirements which have developed at both partners. It is impossible to forget about the felt fear of possible pregnancy or infection with a venereal disease or AIDS. Huge value has feeling of tranquillity and safety of a situation at which there takes place sexual intercourse. The back seat of the car, the parental house, not locked office or the elevator can lead the man to fiasco.
It is a known fact that erectile dysfunction is curable disease that’s why first of all it is necessary to identify the reason of this disorder emergence. You may order necessary preparations applied at erectile dysfunction treatment via Canadian Health Care Mall. To overcome this disease it is also obligatory to eliminate fatigue, stress, constant quarrels and etc. you may take under control your erectile function. If you come across with such problems you are welcome on our website where you will find everything necessary for treatment.
Viagra is used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in men. It relaxes the muscles that are found in the walls of the blood vessels and augments the flow of blood to the certain areas of the body. Erectile dysfunction is mostly caused by something physical, like an injury, disease, or the side effect of other drugs. It can be the result of medical conditions such as the following.
- Heart disease
- High blood pressure
- Diabetes, etc
It can also be caused by medications used in treating the following.
- High blood pressure
- Heart disease
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Some physicians, attorneys, and political leaders believe that the US malpractice system can best be improved through tort reform. “Tort reform” usually stands for discouraging plaintiffs and their attorneys from filing claims. It might involve the following: (1) limiting plaintiff access to courts (eg, by shortening statutes of limitation during which claims can be made or establishing screening panels to determine which claims are meritorious); (2) modifying liability rules (eg, eliminating res ipsa loquitur); or (3) reforming the damage system (eg, capping noneconomic damages and limiting plaintiff attorneys’ fees, as is the case under the California Medical Injury Compensation Reform Act).
Others prefer system reform to tort reform because it does not necessarily limit claims or compensation. Proposed approaches to system reform include the following: (1) alternatives to negligence standards (eg, use of practice guidelines to establish standards of care); (2) relocation of legal responsibility (eg, shifting liability from individual practitioners to the larger organizations of which they may be a part, a concept called “enterprise liability”; and (3) alternative mechanisms for resolving disputes (eg, compensating claims through nonnegligence oriented health courts or a no-fault system).
Extrapolating from the New York and Utah and Colorado epidemiologic studies, the Institute of Medicine estimated in its from 1999 to 2000 publication, To Err Is Human, that 44,000 to 98,000 hospitalized Americans die each year from medical errors. These estimates surpass those of the number of patients who die from motor vehicle accidents, breast cancer, and AIDS. The total annual national costs of medical errors resulting in injury are $17 to $29 billion, half of which are health-care costs. Decreased costs on remedies are available on Canadian Health&Care Mall (see also “Canadian Health&Care Mall: How Claims Are Resolved in Medical Malpractice and the Chest Physician“).
Although the accuracy of error estimates in To Err Is Human have been debated, the publication unquestionably brought attention to the overall need to improve safety in the United States. Strategies for such improvement outlined in To Err Is Human include the following: (1) not blaming individuals, including physicians, for committing errors; (2) eliminating shortcomings in health-care systems that allow errors to occur; (3) increasing error reporting and analysis so that systems can be improved; and (4) disclosing errors to patients with the expectation that safety will increase and malpractice claim volume and costs will decrease.