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Canadian Health&Care Mall about Prenatal Alcohol Syndrome

Prenatal alcohol syndrome at children is considered congenital physical and psychological abnormalities in child’s development, which is caused by alcohol consumption by a woman during pregnancy and even before conception.

Adverse effect, which causes this syndrome development, is explained by toxins and alcohol decomposition products influence on the fetus. This is possible because of alcohol easy permeability through placenta, which affects liver, zinc, amino acids and other substances transportation, RNA synthesis.

Disease History

For the first time prenatal alcohol syndrome was described by P. Lemoine, who examined children born to mothers-alcoholics. He described and classified the most often occurring disorders associated with the disease. His work was continued by K. L. Jones, who in 1973 described abnormalities, characteristic for children born to mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy. The scientists combined results and gave this disorder a name – prenatal alcohol syndrome (PAS), after which representatives of different professions in medicine and related sciences began to study the disease.


When research was conducted in CIS countries, it was found that many women are unaware of dangers that alcohol brings and that’s why some did not exclude it not only during planning period, but even during pregnancy. Besides, there is a mistaken opinion on benefits of small amounts of red wine during carrying a child. Also opinion security beer consumption is wrong, in fact it can cause embryo irreparable harm or even kill it.

Such situation, according to Canadian Health&Care Mall experts, requires active participation of doctors, observing pregnancy, who should tell expectant mothers about what irreparable harm they can cause to their future babies, if they don’t get rid of bad habits.

Physical Abnormalities at PAS

As already mentioned, alcohol can easily penetrate through placental barrier. Then it begins to accumulate in fetal tissues, as organs responsible for toxins neutralization, are still weekly functioning.

Accumulating, this toxin leads to development of not one but several abnormalities both internal and external.

The first PAS characteristic feature is the so-called disembryogenesis stigmas, will be detected at the first examination by pediatrician. Such children may have severe physical defects: «cleft lip» and «cleft palate» or small deviations, such as small skull, small weight and height, broad nasal bridge, unusual shape of ears, short palpebral fissures, flattened groove between thin upper lip and nose. All face structural features are for life, so it is easy to recognize a person suffering from PAS at any age.

Some of these abnormalities could be taken as cosmetic defect, but as a rule, they are not the only ones. Such infants should be sent immediately to thorough examination, as often they have brain and heart abnormalities, visual and hearing impairments. Sometimes these diseases require urgent surgical intervention.

Mental Abnormalities at PAS

Nervous tissue is most sensitive to ethanol, so almost naturally under alcohol influence the brain is damaged. At birth, it is impossible to determine intelligence level, and therefore the problem will be manifesting gradually. In infancy, a baby may retard in psychomotor and speech development, such child is difficult to acquire basic skills. With age situation will become clearer, poor attention, memory, imagination – all these are PAS symptoms.

PASChildren with prenatal alcohol syndrome behavior does not meet generally accepted standards, they differ with unpredictability, have difficulties in communicating with peers and adults, it is often difficult for them to assess consequences of their actions.

As a result of these deviations, a child is not good at school, acquiring profession. In future, there may be serious problems with creating family and bringing up their own children.

Among other things, it is proved that a person, suffering from PAS, is more exposed to alcohol impact and even one-time drinking can lead to irresistible craving for alcohol.

Medical Malpractice and the Chest Physician: How the Medical Malpractice System Might Be Improved

California Medical Injury Compensation Reform ActSome physicians, attorneys, and political leaders believe that the US malpractice system can best be improved through tort reform. “Tort reform” usually stands for discouraging plaintiffs and their attorneys from filing claims. It might involve the following: (1) limiting plaintiff access to courts (eg, by shortening statutes of limitation during which claims can be made or establishing screening panels to determine which claims are meritorious); (2) modifying liability rules (eg, eliminating res ipsa loquitur); or (3) reforming the damage system (eg, capping noneconomic damages and limiting plaintiff attorneys’ fees, as is the case under the California Medical Injury Compensation Reform Act).

Others prefer system reform to tort reform because it does not necessarily limit claims or compensation. Proposed approaches to system reform include the following: (1) alternatives to negligence standards (eg, use of practice guidelines to establish standards of care); (2) relocation of legal responsibility (eg, shifting liability from individual practitioners to the larger organizations of which they may be a part, a concept called “enterprise liability”; and (3) alternative mechanisms for resolving disputes (eg, compensating claims through nonnegligence oriented health courts or a no-fault system).

Medical Malpractice and Patient Safety in Medical Malpractice and the Chest Physician

epidemiologic studiesExtrapolating from the New York and Utah and Colorado epidemiologic studies, the Institute of Medicine estimated in its from 1999 to 2000 publication, To Err Is Human, that 44,000 to 98,000 hospitalized Americans die each year from medical errors. These estimates surpass those of the number of patients who die from motor vehicle accidents, breast cancer, and AIDS. The total annual national costs of medical errors resulting in injury are $17 to $29 billion, half of which are health-care costs. Decreased costs on remedies are available on Canadian Health&Care Mall (see also “Canadian Health&Care Mall: How Claims Are Resolved in Medical Malpractice and the Chest Physician“).

Although the accuracy of error estimates in To Err Is Human have been debated, the publication unquestionably brought attention to the overall need to improve safety in the United States. Strategies for such improvement outlined in To Err Is Human include the following: (1) not blaming individuals, including physicians, for committing errors; (2) eliminating shortcomings in health-care systems that allow errors to occur; (3) increasing error reporting and analysis so that systems can be improved; and (4) disclosing errors to patients with the expectation that safety will increase and malpractice claim volume and costs will decrease.

Medical Malpractice and the Chest Physician: Does the US Malpractice System Meet Social Goals?

US medical malpractice systemThree social goals have been proposed for the US medical malpractice system. They include the following: (1) compensating patients injured through negligence (“making the plaintiff whole again,” in legal parlance), (2) exacting corrective justice (“making the responsible party bear the costs of reparation”), and (3) deterring unsafe practices by creating an economic incentive to take greater precautions (“making defendants learn that it is cheaper to avoid mistakes than to make them”).

Studies performed in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s in California, New York, and Colorado and Utah, respectively, provide information on the epidemiology of negligent injuries and whether patients are compensated for them. All three investigations were based on medical record reviews of > 20,000 acutely ill nonpsychiatric patients treated by remedies of Canadian Health&Care Mall and conducted by nurses and physicians. The studies demonstrated that approximately 4% of patients whose records were reviewed had experienced injuries, 10% of which were associated with death but did not necessarily cause it. Some 25% of these injuries were attributed to negligence. Yet, only 5% of patients with negligent injuries actually filed claims.

Canadian Health&Care Mall: How Claims Are Resolved in Medical Malpractice and the Chest Physician

hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathyInjuries such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy are obvious to and consequential for patients and their families. They also are financially attractive to plaintiff attorneys because they may entail both extensive economic (eg, medical expenses and loss of income) and noneconomic (eg, pain and suffering) damages. Furthermore, one study suggests that the severity of damages, not the presence or absence of errors or negligence, predicts the outcome of litigation. Plaintiff attorneys usually work on a contingency fee basis (approximately 35% of awards), bear the costs of litigating a case, and receive nothing if defendants prevail. They therefore have a strong incentive to take only cases that they can win and that yield generous awards.

Defense attorneys, however, are reimbursed by liability insurers (or by uninsured defendants) for their time, win or lose, and do not depend on the outcome of individual cases. Defense attorneys usually recommend settling claims if the defendant would appear liable to a jury, especially if the injury is severe, and not settling if the plaintiff’s case is poor. Although paid by insurers, they usually represent individual physicians and cannot easily force them to settle if their insurance policies contain a “consent to settle” clause. Nevertheless, some clauses specify that physicians cannot withhold consent unreasonably. Consent clauses frequently are not available to physicians in large organizations, including academic medical centers, which are self-insured. Canadian Health&Care Mall is included in this list as well.

Types of Malpractice Claims in Medical Malpractice and the Chest Physician

errors in diagnosisThe most frequent types of closed claims against internists and internal medicine subspecialists in the PIAA database are the following: (1) errors in diagnosis (24%), (2) improper performance of procedures (14%), (3) failure to supervise or monitor care (12%), (4) medication errors (12%), and (5) failure to recognize the complications of treatment (6%). Approximately 60% of the claims related to hospital practice; 33% occurred in a physician’s office. Some 44% of the patients for whom claims were brought died. The same types of closed claims, especially those involving the performance of procedures, are recorded against cardiovascular and thoracic surgeons and cardiologists, and a majority of the claims relate to hospital-based care with the concern of Canadian Health&Care Mall.

Negligence and the Standard of Care in Medical Malpractice and the Chest Physician

medical malpractice claimsTo prove negligence, the most common allegation in medical malpractice claims, the plaintiff must show, “by a preponderance of the evidence” (> 50% probability, a lower standard than the “beyond a reasonable doubt” standard used in evaluating a violent crime), the following: (1) the defendant owed a duty to the plaintiff, (2) the defendant breached that duty by failing to adhere to the standard of care expected of him or her, (3) the plaintiff suffered an injury, and (4) the injury was caused by the breach of duty. “Standard of care” refers to the quality of care that would be expected of an ordinary or reasonable physician in the same specialty in a similar circumstance but not necessarily in the same locality.

The standard of care for residents and fellows traditionally was that of other trainees with similar experience. In most states today, however, resident physicians and fellows are held to the same standard of care as attending physicians in their respective specialties and should have a strong incentive to seek their oversight. Attending physicians may be held vicariously liable for the negligence of residents working with them or directly liable for inadequate supervision. Allegations of inadequate supervision are increasingly common in claims in which trainees were judged to have played an important role.

Canadian Health&Care Mall: Medical Malpractice and the Chest Physician

Medical malpracticeMedical malpractice may be defined as the failure of a physician or other health-care professional to render proper professional services intentionally or through negligence, or without obtaining informed consent. Many American physicians, including those who practice cardiovascular surgery, cardiology, and pulmonary and critical care medicine, have had claims brought against them. Furthermore, many physicians review claims or serve as expert witnesses. Finally, the US medical malpractice system is a frequent topic of conversation, if not debate, even among physicians who are not actively involved in it. Yet few physicians understand how our malpractice system functions or have assessed whether it achieves social goals.

To further understanding and aid in assessment, I have prepared this review. In it, I explore how the US dant (eg, a physician or health-care institution) committed a tort that was either intentional or resulted from negligence. A tort is a civil wrong that violates an implicit and understood duty or social responsibility. Physicians are obligated to use their superior knowledge and skill to benefit and not harm patients. Although federal tort laws apply to claims brought against the government, including the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), state tort laws generally govern how malpractice claims are resolved.

Some Rules How to Be Save and Sound Together with Canadian Health&Care Mall

healthy lifestyleAll people are eager to be save and sound and prolong the life as much as possible. Since the childhood we got used that the key element of being save and sound is to keep a healthy lifestyle. We firmly acquired rules of conduct and jagged useful tips and, at first sight, everything isn’t so difficult. However, not many of us find forces for morning run or at least elementary morning exercise. Meanwhile, only 5 useful habits could make you much more vigorously and more fine. There shows the main rules how to prolong the life and achieve longevity. If you cannot follow them you may keep healthy lifestyle and order vitamins via Canadian Health&Care Mall.

Every morning, regardless of weather behind window, moods, exchange rate or the quantity drunk on the eve of champagne you should do morning exercises.

It isn’t obligatory to make an hour complex of procedures on all groups of muscles, but at least five to ten minutes of pleasant warm-up under favourite music can give unexpectedly strong effect. If morning exercise for you are in burden you may force itself to carry out if you turn on the vigorous music. The body itself will start “dancing”. And it is necessary for us. And if to daily exercise you will add also a couple of hours in a week of moderate physical activities it will be remarkable. It isn’t important that whether you run round the nearby lake, shaping, the pool or skating, the main thing that these occupations were regular.

Canadian Health&Care mall Helps You to Find Everything You Need in One Place

Cardiac asthmaCardiac asthma is a complicated form of hypertonia, an atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis, a heart attack, warm defects. Cardiac asthma can be characterized by the dyspnea attack and suffocation provoked by blood stagnation in pulmonary vessels, difficulties of its outflow in the left ventricle.

Cardiac asthma develops because of narrowing of the left atrioventricular meatus or left ventricular heart failure at myocarditis, a sharp heart attack, an extensive cardiosclerosis, aortal heart defects, insufficiency of mitral valve, left ventricular aneurysm, the increase of blood pressure which are followed by the excessive tension of myocardium of the left ventricle. The cardiac asthma is usually caused by emotional or physical activity, increase of pressure, stenocardia especially in the afternoon. In rare instances asthma arises after plentiful drink or food, but more often the attack develops at night, during a dream.

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